Dr. Paul Lewis

Paul G. Lewis, Doris Marie Provine, Monica W. Varsanyi, and Scott H. Decker, “Why Do (Some) City Police Departments Enforce Federal Immigration Law? Political, Demographic, and Organizational Influences on Local Choices,” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory (2012)

Abstract:

In 1996, Congress created a new way to enforce national immigration laws, inviting state and local law enforcement personnel to become formally involved in the effort. Why have police departments in some communities embraced increased involvement in immigration enforcement, whereas others have shunned this role? Do local elected officials typically determine the contours of police practice in this area or do police departments act with considerable autonomy in deciding how much to become involved in immigration enforcement? We examine these issues by analyzing data from a national survey of police chiefs in municipalities with populations of 65,000 or more. Our analysis takes account of the possibly endogenous relationship between the policies of city government and the practices

of police departments. We find that immigrant-supportive city policy commitments and the presence of a Hispanic police chief are associated with less intensive immigration enforcement by local police. Voter partisanship is also related to police practices, but only in cities with an unreformed form of government.

Link to article:  http://jpart.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2012/10/02/jopart.mus045.full.pdf?keytype=ref&ijkey=KKzzoSlYV82IuNm

Dr. David Siroky

For more information on the articles, please visit Dr. Siroky's website.


David S. Siroky, Valeriy Dzutsev and Michael Hechter, `The Differential Demand for Indirect Rule: Evidence from the North Caucasus,' Post-Soviet Affairs, 29, 2013

Abstract: Indirect rule is one of the means that central authorities have long employed in hopes of defusing communal conflict and civil war in multicultural societies. Yet very little is known about the appeal of indirect rule among the ruled themselves. Why do people in some places demand more indirect rule and local autonomy, while others seem content to be governed directly by rulers of an alien culture? This is a crucial question with important implications for determining the form of governance that is most likely to provide social order in culturally heterogeneous societies. Although much attention has been given to considering the relative costs and benefits of direct as against indirect rule for the central authorities, the other side of the coin – namely, the variable demand for indirect rule among the members of distinctive cultural groups – has hardly been examined with systematic empirical data. This paper presents a theory of the differential demand for indirect rule, and offers an initial test of its principal empirical implications using original micro-level data from the North Caucasus region of Russia. The theory’s core claim is that the middle class should express the greatest demand for indirect rule, while both the upper and lower classes should prefer more direct rule. The theory therefore predicts that there will be an inverse parabolic relationship between the demand for indirect rule and economic class. The findings are largely consistent with these theoretical expectations.

Giorgi Gvalia, David Siroky, Bidzina Lebanidze and Zurab Iashvili, `Thinking Outside the Bloc: Explaining the Foreign Policies of Small States,' Security Studies, 22, 2013

Abstract: What explains change and continuity in the foreign policy behavior of small states? Given the proliferation of small states over the past century, it is surprising that this topic has received relatively little systematic attention in the International Relations scholarship compared to the focus on Great Powers. The conventional wisdom is that small states bandwagon with threatening great powers rather than balance against them. In this article, we suggest that this perspective on small states is insufficient because it overemphasizes structural and material factors at the expense of elite ideas and identities, which constitute the filter through which material and structural threats and opportunities are perceived. Elite ideas, identities and preferences over social orders, we suggest, play a greater role in explaining the foreign policy behavior of small states than has been generally appreciated. We explore these theoretical claims using unique evidence from primary sources and over forty interviews with national security and foreign policy elite to understand the puzzling case of Georgia’s balancing behavior against Russia in the face of clear economic costs and real military risks.

David Siroky and Valeriy Dzutsev, `Rational or Reckless? Georgia's Zugzwang in the Caucasus,'  Nationalities Papers, 40 (3), 303-314, 2012.

Abstract: Although the 2008 Russian-Georgian war was a military defeat for Georgia, it has only reinforced Georgia’s westward trajectory. One noteworthy difference from Georgia’s pre-war policy is a new regional strategy—the North Caucasus Initiative—that seeks to create a soft power alternative to Russia’s military dominance in the region. We suggest that this approach is rational rather than reckless, as some critics have claimed. It represents a carefully calculated strategy that is already benefiting Georgia and from which all concerned parties, including Russia, stand to gain. If the South and North Caucasus were more open and less divided—a direction in which this new initiative appears to point—the Caucasus could become more prosperous and more stable. That would serve Russia’s long-term interest by significantly reducing the cost of subsidies to sustain and stabilize the volatile region.

David Siroky, `Each Man for Himself? Rival Theories of Alliance Economics in the Early State System,'  Defence and Peace Economics, 23 (4), 321-330, 2012.

Abstract: When military alliances are expensive, they naturally raise distributional issues. This article considers two theories to explain how much a state will voluntarily contribute to the economic burdens of defense. Empirical work has relied largely on data from the twentieth century. This article provides an out-of-sample test to evaluate the models. Using data on the Quintuple Alliance, the results are more consistent with the predictions of the joint products model than the pure public goods model. Due to credible commitment problems, and intra-alliance cleavages, I argue that we should not expect substantial free riding in most conventional military alliances.

Jason Guss and David Siroky, `Living with Heterogeneity: Bridging the Ethnic Divide in Bosnia and Beyond,'  Comparative Sociology, 11 (3), 304-324, 2012
Abstract: Short of partition, many scholars hold that consociational arrangements are the most effective democratic institutional mechanisms to manage ethnic differences and maintain peace in nations and groups recently engaged in violent ethnic conflict. Numerous countries have implemented consociational arrangements to redress identity-based conflicts over recognition and resources, but the empirical record is mixed. Restoring moderate politics and democratic order in ethnically divided societies after war is difficult. Consociationalism, however, is usually not the best or the only option. Consociationalism fails as a viable post-conflict political system because it tends to reinforce centrifugal politics and to reify identity-based cleavages. The implementation of centripetal social and institutional reforms, which foster political and economic incentives for communities to reintegrate refugees, diversify existing populations, and engage in coalition politics, is more likely to restore moderation and minimize the risk of renewed ethnic violence. We explore these arguments using the critical case of Bosnia, drawing on examples from other parts of the world that have faced similar challenges. We argue that efforts to balance majority rule and the rights of the constituent peoples in Bosnia have created an unwieldy power-sharing architecture that satisfies none of the parties and is unable to govern. Post-war and deeply divided democracies, such as Bosnia, require reforms that move towards a centripetal, incentives-based approach to institutional design. 

Clifford Koehler

1) The World is Not Enough: The Territorialization of Outer Space?

Abstract:The use and exploration of outer space presents spectators with two very different characterizations, faces, of outer space: the idealistic—representing the pinnacle of human achievement, the benefits of outer space meant to benefit all equally—and the dystopian—representing systemic struggles for power in the name of national pride, interest, and security.  Drawing upon notions of territoriality, sovereignty, and power this study argues that the practices of the primary space powers constitute a reality characterized by this latter representation of outer space, with the often prevalent rhetorical idealism surrounding outer space subjugated to and implicated in supporting this representation.  The degree to which states exert sovereign claims over this sphere, “territorialize” outer space, draw it within the familiar realm of Earthly power politics provide an opportunity to examine these very practices while attempting to understand the politics of outer space.

Status: Submitted for Review

2) The Nuclear Sword of Damocles: The Specter of Nuclear Weapon Accidents and the Significance Low Probability Events

Abstract: Many quantitative studies on nuclear proliferation examine the relationship between nuclear weapons and conflict for various combinations of nuclear and nonnuclear powers.  There is, however, an absence of quantitative study devoted to another important facet of nuclear proliferation: nuclear weapon accidents.  With this in mind, this study analyzes the number of U.S. nuclear weapon accidents over time to further illuminate the nuclear proliferation debate.  The statistical findings themselves prove inconclusive in supporting the primary hypothesis that the number of U.S. nuclear weapon accidents does not decrease over time.  This hypothesis represents the nuclear pessimist argument that states do not necessarily develop greater experience in securing their nuclear arsenals over time, while nuclear optimists argue they do.  The results prove inconclusive due to a potential outlier in the dataset, leading to different results for each of this study’s two models.  Even though the findings are statistically inconclusive, they illuminate key aspects of the proliferation debate, particularly significance of high probability-low consequence events (whether statistically significant or not) and the need for qualitative judgment when studying these events.

Status: Under Review
 

Dr. George Thomas

“Anthropodicies in World Society: Accounting for Failures through Global Action Programs”

Abstract: This project studies how in the context of global rationalism international organizations explain and give account of catastrophes, collapses, and chronic failures.  Documents of international organizations are studied as cultural texts that produce “anthropodicies”:  accounts that call for rational action programs to attain the global good society. Current analyses are of the UN Millennial Development Goals and the Hyogo Declaration on Disaster Reduction and the Framework for Action.  Analyses of organizational discourse are used to make inferences about the nature of global cultural imperatives to take action and solve problems. This is part of a larger comparative project.

"Religions Engaging Everyday Life:  New Religious Orthodoxies”

Abstract: This is a study of how religions engage globalizing, rationalistic institutions such as capitalist markets, states, and individualism.  It focuses on religious movements in different religious traditions that are not easily labeled as liberal or fundamentalist.  They embrace globalizing institutions in everyday life but simultaneously submit them to a religious, moral order in continuity with their religious tradition; thus they are referred to as new religious orthodoxies.  

A recent publication: Neslihan Çevik and George M. Thomas. 2012. “Muslimism in Turkey and new religious orthodoxies: implications for theorizing religious movements in world society,” Middle Eastern Studies 3(2):57-95. 

Link:  http://www.orsam.org.tr/en/enUploads/Article/Files/201227_neslihanw.pdf

"Religious Rights in World Culture in the World Polity”

Abstract: This project studies religious rights and contentious debates over their formulation and practice.  It examines different sites:  the constitutions and practices of nation-states with a special focus on schools, debates within the United Nations over the formulation of religious rights and anti-blasphemy resolutions, international NGOs, and international regional courts such as the European Court of Human Rights.  It examines the role of global social movements and intellectuals and the discourse involved in the construction of religious rights globally.  Current work analyzes the cases in international courts involving religion.  In a recent paper, analyses of religious rights cases in the European Court of Human Rights are used to see what if any European formula for religious rights is emerging.

 

Dr. Magda Hinojosa

Selecting Women, Electing Women: Political Representation and Candidate Selection in Latin America

Why are conservative parties in Latin American often nominating more female candidates than left-wing parties in the region? How is it that even parties that employ gender quotas are failing to nominate as many women as some of these right-wing parties? This book paves new ground by assessing the role of candidate selection processes in limiting the participation of women in politics and explaining the variation in women’s representation that exists both across and within political parties. Dr. Hinojosa argues that primaries, which are regularly thought of as the most “democratic” process for choosing candidates, actually produce fewer female nominees than centralized and seemingly exclusionary candidate selection procedures. These procedures so powerfully affect gender balance that they can override party ideology and gender quotas.

LINK: http://www.temple.edu/tempress/titles/2198_reg_print.html

LINK: http://www.amazon.com/dp/1439908486

Dr. Thomas Puleo

The Valtellina and UNESCO: Making a Global Landscape

Abstract: Global in scope and transdisciplinary in method, this work examines the process through which local historic landscapes become global heritage sites. The Valtellina, a valley in the Italian Alps, is known for being unusually fertile for its elevation and latitude, and for the dry stone terraces on its steep hillsides that make this fertility possible. ProVinea, a local nonprofit, has applied to UNESCO to inscribe these landscapes onto its World Heritage list, representing the construction and use of the terraces as the heroic transformation of barren slopes into fertile fields. Drawing on Michel Serres’ theory of serial parasitism, this study demonstrates how ProVinea discursively and materially remakes the landscapes by culling the advantageous, eliminating the detrimental, and assembling the dispersed. A casualty of this process is a more complex and complete truth, one that this book aims to restore, while also acknowledging the validity of World Heritage’s efforts to build a global culture and ProVinea’s desire to connect to it.

Book: published by Lexington Books (Rowman and Littlefied) in September 2012; https://rowman.com/ISBN/9780739173466.

Parasitizing space for UNESCO World Heritage

Abstract: The work of Michel Serres has received recent attention in geographic scholarship, particularly his concept of the parasite. In this article I use this model to investigate an area of geographic study that has remained until now unexamined under this lens: the production of heritage landscapes. Through an engagement with a case from the Valtellina, a valley in the Italian Alps, I demonstrate the logic of the parasite that is evident in the actions of a local nonprofit organization that narratively and materially analyzes (culls), paralyzes (eliminates), and catalyzes (combines) local agricultural terraces in an application to UNESCO’s World Heritage list. I do this by parasitizing the terraces and the application myself as I analyze, paralyze, and catalyze them to render a still partial but fuller representation of the valley’s historic terraced landscapes. Parasites are ambivalent agents, abusive in some ways but useful in others.

Article: under final review for publication in Geoforum.

The Sicilian Baroque: Reconciling post-quake tensions

Abstract: Building on multiple discourses involving art, architecture, and catastrophe, this work examines how public practices and designs mediate the cultural, social, and political changes that occur after a disaster. It takes as its case study the reconstruction of Sicily’s Val di Noto following the earthquake of 1693 and the role that the Baroque architectural style played in it. Sicilian Baroque building decoration emerges as a fecund matrix that helped reconcile the tensions that inhere among architecture, catastrophe, community, and subject.

Article: under review for inclusion in special issue on baroque geographies to be published by Environment and Planning A.

Catastrophic Geographies: Special journal issue, co-guest-edited with Henry Sivak

Abstract: Catastrophes have long been understood as deviations from the normal processes of place making. As a result, they have not been sufficiently theorized in geographical terms. Yet, catastrophes and hazards continually remake the material world and condition our encounters with it, as in the wake of major environmental upheavals. They fuel perceptions of risk, prompting new modes of geographic perception, thought, engagement, and practice. And, they link geographical categories of space, place, and territory to the lived experiences of risk and hazard.

Special edition: submissions under peer review; foreword, introduction, and afterword in development; scheduled for publication by Geographical Review in April 2013

Disaster Humanities: The art of place recovery

Medical studies support the use of the arts and humanities in treatments designed to restore the integrity of a compromised subject. This study considers how these protocols, art therapy and the medical humanities, could also facilitate the recovery of places following catastrophe. It begins by investigating how practitioners use the arts and humanities in clinical therapy, continues by conceptualizing a place as a subject, follows with an examination of current disaster relief programs, and concludes by proposing key genres of artistic and humanistic work to be used in post-disaster recovery programs. Keywords: art, disaster, humanities, place, recovery, resilience.

Article: in development; to be submitted to Progress in Human Geography in December 2012.

Dr. Jack Crittenden

Dr. Crittenden is currently working on several new pieces:

  • Co-authoring with Debi Campbell, the two are working on a manuscript entitled, "Why Can't We Make Our Own Damn Laws?" The manuscript focuses on direct deliberative democracy and aruges that citizens should be making laws more often than they currently do and with a larger scope, through national initiatives. Using real-world examples and jury decisions, the two counter arguments against direct democracy and offer a new foundation of democratic decision-making.
  • His latest paper, "Who's Afraid of the White Crow? William James and Life After Death," focuses on the life and research of William James' research on the paranormal, more specifically the 19th-century medium, Mrs. Leonora Piper. Mrs. Piper, the "white crow" amongst the fraudulent, common "black crows" of time, proved to many scientists after 15 years of scientific study that she was indeed a medium. In his article, Dr. Crittenden argues that many scientists are afraid of "white crows" and refuse to look at the evidence, therefore making them the new fundamentalists.
Dr. Thorin Wright, "Staying the Course: Assessing the Durability of Peacekeeping Operations"

Published in Conflict Management and Peace Science (April, 2012) pages 127-147.

Abstract: The use of peacekeeping to manage conflicts in the international system has grown since the end of the Cold War. While much attention has been devoted to what makes peacekeeping successful, the outcome of peacekeeping is ultimately tied to the willingness of the intervening actor(s) to “stay the course” and continue the mission until its objectives are complete. In this article we focus upon the empirical puzzle of peacekeeping missions’ sustainability. After states and international organizations overcome the collective action problem of forming a mission and deploying it, it is puzzling that so many missions drop out before completion. We adopt a competing risks framework in our analysis to identify the forces that determine whether peacekeepers stay until the end of a conflict or withdraw early. Our explanation argues that peacekeepers are more likely to stay the course as the capacity of the mission increases, the costs and risks of peacekeeping diminish, and traction towards peace is observed.